The Alderson Radiation Therapy Phantom
ACCURATE ORGAN DOSIMETRY MEASUREMENTS WITH MINIMAL DOSIMETERS
- Approximately 10,000 phantoms in use all over the world for 30 years
- Indispensable quality-assurance tool
- Molded of tissue-equivalent material
The Alderson Radiation Therapy (ART) Phantom is a refined and improved version of the Alderson RANDO Phantom in both design and materials. ART Phantoms are designed within highly sophisticated technological constraints and follow ICRU-44 standards. Additionally, they provide integrated tests of the entire chain of treatment planning and delivery.
ART Phantoms are molded of tissue-equivalent material and designed for accuracy and ease of use.
The male ART represents a 175 cm (5 ft. 9 in.) tall, 73.5 kg (162 lb.) male, and the female ART represents a 155 cm (5 ft. 1 in.) tall, 50 kg (110 lb.) female.
The ART Phantom is transected-horizontally into 2.5 cm thick slices. Each slice has holes which are plugged with bone-equivalent, soft-tissue-equivalent or lung tissue equivalent pins which can be replaced by TLD holder pins. Holder pins may be ordered separately.
Soft-tissue-equivalent coatings produce slices with glass smooth interfaces. These coatings are cut away over the air spaces of the oronasal pharynges, trachea, and stem bronchi. Dosimetry holes are drilled in grids 3 cm x 3 cm or 1.5 cm x 1.5 cm in 5 and 7 mm diameters thereby allowing for detailed measurements of dose distributions.
Skeletons: RSD skeletons are highly detailed polymer moldings which reproduce the shape, mass density and attenuation coefficients of cortical bone and spongiosa. This allows for continuous production of phantoms, instead of the sporadic production required by the limited availability, variable size and uncertain chemical composition of human skeletons. Our proprietary moldings allow for continuous production, eliminate the restrictions of human skeleton bones (including limited availability, variable size, and uncertain chemical composition), and avoid the loss of marrows in dried natural skeletons thereby making RSD skeletons superior to “real bone.”
Molds for the RSD cortical bone and spongiosa were made from human skeletons consistent with the sizes of the soft tissue molds.
RSD skeletons conform closely to the standards established by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU Report No. 44); mass density is reduced slightly to take into account a small decrease in calcium content for older patients.
Lungs: Lungs are molded from syntactic foam, with a specific gravity of 0.30 g/cc.
TLD Dosimeters and Fittings
LANDAUER®, MicroSTAR®, and nanoDot® are registered trademarks of LANDAUER®, a division of Fluke® Corporation.
The external assembly facilitates film dosimetry, while the internal assembly is used generally with TLDs or ion chamber dosimetry.
ART-250 | Male Breasts
ART-350 | Female Breasts
There is poor correlation between clothing brassiere sizes and breast volumes. Breasts are specified according to this table:
|Size||Approximate Clothing Size||Volume|
Sliced or Unsliced:
-S | Sliced
-U | Unsliced
-1.5 | 1.5cm x 1.5cm
-3.0 | 3.0cm x 3.0cm
-0 | None
-5 | 5mm Diameter
-7 | 7mm Diameter
-L | Left
-R | Right
-P | Pair
Male Breast – 400ml – Sliced – 3.0cm x 3.0cm Grid – 7mm Diameter – Pair
|UNDRILLED||3 cm x 3 cm GRID HOLE SPACING||1.5 cm x 1.5 cm GRID HOLE SPACING|
|Male ART Phantom|
|Male ART Head and Neck Phantom|
|Male ART Chest Phantom |
|Male ART Pelvis Phantom |
|Female ART Phantom |
|Female ART Head and Neck Phantom |
|Female ART Chest Phantom |
|Female ART Pelvis Phantom |
- Organ specific dosimetry for all dosimeters (TLD, OSL nanodots, MOSFET, film, ion chambers, and diodes)
- Standard 3 cm x 3 cm or 1.5 cm x 1.5 cm hole grids for dosimeters
- IMRT organ dose distributions
- External beams in the 0.04 to 40 MeV
- Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT)
- Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT)
- Gamma Knife
- Cone Beam CT
Flatten V, Friedrich A, Engenhart-Cabillic R, Zink K. A Phantom Based Evaluation of the Dose Prediction and Effects in Treatment Plans, When Calculating on a Direct Density CT Reconstruction. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2020 Mar;21(3):52-61. PMID: 32176455; PMCID: PMC7075385. DOI: 10.1002/acm2.12824
Hauri P, Schneider U. Whole-Body Dose Equivalent Including Neutrons is Similar for 6 MV and 15 MV IMRT, VMAT, and 3D Conformal Radiotherapy. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2019 Mar;20(3):56-70. Epub 2019 Feb 21. PMID: 30791198; PMCID: PMC6414138. DOI: 10.1002/acm2.12543
Sawyer L J, Whittle S A, Matthews E S, Starritt H C, JUPP T P. Estimation of Organ and Effective Doses Resulting From Cone Beam CT Imaging for Radiotherapy Treatment Planning. British Journal of Radiology, Vol. 82, No. 979. 2014 Mar. DOI: 10.1259/bjr/62467578