|The Fission-Product Phantom is partially modeled after the
Lawrence Livermore Realistic Phantom. It was developed by RSD
to meet the needs of nuclear power stations and other
facilities where more organs are needed than are provided by
the Lawrence Livermore Realistic Phantom.
This phantom may be used on a couch, in a chair or standing.
It includes the head and neck, the complete torso and stub
legs articulated at the hips (which are also needed for the
sitting position). The same access to the torso cavity is
provided as in the Livermore Phantom.
The materials of construction are RSD multi-energetic
formulations. The skeleton has been extended to include the
head and full torso. The RSD "Superhuman Skeleton," which is
multi-energetic, is used. RSD materials closely meet the
standards of the International Commission on Radiation Units
and Measurements (ICRU) Report No. 44 (Tissue Substitutes in
Radiation Dosimetry and Measurement, 1989).
The organs of the Lawrence Livermore Realistic Phantom fit
exactly into the Fission-Product Phantom, but RSD has modified
the internal construction to accommodate additional organs:
thyroid, kidneys, stomach, spleen, pancreas, and small and
The Fission-Product Phantom system is shipped with inert
organs. Any or all organs can be replaced by radioactive
organs, which are shipped in separate packages.
The same choices of nuclide loadings are available for active
organs as for the liver of the Livermore Phantom (uniformly
dispersed in the molding materials, hollow shells or with hold
These are fitted specifically to the Fission-Product Phantom
and are not interchangeable with the Livermore Phantom.
The Thyroid Phantom is an integral part of the Fission-Product
Phantom, but it can also be supplied
separately (with or
without a head). This phantom has the same contours as in the
full Fission-Product Phantom.
The Thyroid Phantom contains a neck with corresponding
"Superhuman Skeleton" vertebrae, a hollow-shell thyroid with
filling and flushing ports, and a front cover of
tissue-equivalent phantom material.
This assembly has been designed for rapid removal of the cover
plate and thyroid, a quick fill with an isotope solution and
an equally rapid reassembly. This permits work with iodines of
very short half-lives. A portion of the clavicles and sternum
are included to further enhance the realism of the phantom.
RSD routinely manufactures active organs with isotopes to suit
users' needs. Active capsules to fit into the gridded holes
are available, or empty capsules can be supplied to be filled
by the user.
RSD usually supplies the required isotopes, but users may
furnish them if so desired.
Isotopes are most often received as calibrated solutions,
traceable to the NIST. Organ loading is controlled by
micropipetting aliquots from the calibrated solutions.
Uraniums and plutoniums are traceable to the NIST by mass.
Other isotopes are usually traceable by activity.
Some isotopes are manufactured only at intervals throughout
the year, so delivery is subject to availability. In some
cases, calibration costs from governmental sources are subject
to wide fluctuations.
Lawrence Livermore Realistic Phantom System includes: torso
and gridded torso cover, inert heart, lungs, lymph nodes,
liver and liver envelope or abdominal contents. All blocks
needed for organ location and soft tissue continuity within
torso. Documentation. Permanent shipping and storage case.
Fission-Product Phantom System,
includes: head, neck, neck
cover plate for thyroid access, complete torso and gridded
torso cover, inert heart, lungs, lymph nodes, thyroid, liver,
kidneys, stomach, pancreas, spleen, small and large
intestines. Stub legs with pivot bolts. Documentation.
Permanent shipping and storage case.
Active Capsule (isotope and activity to be specified)
Inert Capsule with sealing cap, to be filled by user
Thyroid Phantom without head; consists of neck, hollow
thyroid, thyroid cover, a portion of the cervical spine,
sternum and clavicles
Thyroid Phantom with head; (same as RS-542 but with head and
full cervical spine)
Thyroid, solid, active
Thyroid, hollow, inert
Chest Overlay Plates
(1, 2, 3, 4)
(A, B, C)
Overlay Plate (Any of 4 thicknesses)
#1 - thinnest, #4 - thickest
=A) 87% adipose - 13% muscle
B) 50% adipose - 50% muscle
C) 100% muscle
(A, B, C)
|Chest Overlay Plates
Set of 4, in materials A, B, or C
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