- Permit unlimited repetition of most views... patients cannot be used for this...
- Demonstrate effects of changing technical factors...
- Provide valid feedback to evaluate trainee performance...
- Because the same phantom can be used year after year, performance norms can be derived to guide training procedures...
- Soft-tissue molds and skeleton molds are matched for anatomic fidelity.
- RSD skeletons meet radiation interaction properties of both cortical bone and spongiosa as standardized by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements.
- ...many cadaveric human skeletons-especially when dried out for their preparation.
PIXY ® was designed specifically for training radiologic
technologists. PIXY is 5 ft. 1 in. (156 cm) tall and weighs
105 lbs (48 kg). She is repeatable, virtually indestructible
and a convenient substitute for patients.
- An anatomically and radiologically correct female
- Small size and low weight simplify positioning
- Can be positioned for most views
- Permits evaluation of student performance
- Organs accept contrast media
- Opaque or transparent
PIXY is made of tissue-equivalent materials and has life-like
articulations. Students have no difficulty in maneuvering PIXY
into most desired positions.
PIXY is used to demonstrate anatomy and evaluate positioning
and imaging techniques, including kVp, mAs, contrast, optical
density, OFD and TFD. Radiographs of PIXY are optically
equivalent in density and contrast to human patients.
PIXY permits unlimited exposures and tolerates trainee errors.
PIXY shoulders have ball and socket joints;
elbows and knees
flex 90 ° to 100 °. Hips flex 130 ° with 30 ° hyperextension.
A "frog position" is made possible by lateral flexion at the
hips. The right hand is molded with fingers positioned for an
AP view, while the left hand is in an oblique-lateral
position. The left foot is in full plantar flexion; the right
foot is in a neutral position.
C1, C2, C6 and C7 were converted to mechanical nylon joints
because educators in the field prefer full positioning
capabilities for the head. The design permits the remaining
neck vertebrae to be fixed in a normal position, while
assuring a full range of head motion.
PIXY contains abdominal and pelvic organs: stomach, gall
bladder, urinary bladder, kidneys, rectum and sigmoid flexure.
These are air-filled, but accept water or contrast media and
can be easily flushed after use. Custom fractures and custom
pathologies are optional.
Skeletons are in continuous productions, so prompt shipments
The matching of skeletons and soft-tissues permits external
and bony landmarks to coincide. The position of bones within
the soft tissues is anatomically correct.
The detail cast into RSD skeletons is considered a triumph of
the sculptural moldmakerÂs craft. The skull, for example, has
frontal and sphenoidal sinuses, ethmoidal and mastoid air
cells and the auditory ossicles. Bone sutures are
PIXY is available in opaque or transparent tissue-equivalent
materials. The transparent PIXY has visible organs and
skeleton except at the hips, knees, and elbows, which are
opaque because, as on the opaque PIXY, latex coverings are
needed to retain tissue-equivalent gels for soft tissue
continuity at these articulations. Two-ply coverings protect
against gel leakage.
Standard PIXY lungs are molded of tissue-equivalent foam with
the mass density of inflated human lungs (0.30 g/cc). They are
connected to the oro-nasal cavity by the stem bronchi and
trachea. The oro-nasal pharynx is filled with a nearly
Optional animal lungs, which duplicate the intricate detail of
the vascular trees, are available. These lungs are fixed in
the inflated state and molded to conform to the pleural
cavities of the phantom. The pulmonary arteries are injected
with a blood-equivalent plastic. In addition, low, medium or
high contrast material may be selected by the user.
*Highly detailed polymer skeletons which reproduce the shape,
mass density and attenuation coefficients of the cortical bone
and spongiosa, allow continuous production of phantoms instead
of sporadic production due to limited availability, variable
size and uncertain chemical composition of human skeletons.
RSD offers a PIXY refurbishment service which, after wear and
tear from usage over an extended period of time, restores PIXY
to its original condition. This service includes repair of
minor bone fractures of hands and feet. Quotes are furnished
upon request for more extensive damage.
Sectional phantoms, with the anatomic and radio-fidelity of
PIXY, are used widely in teaching/training, with many other
applications. They represent an average male 5 ft. 9 in. tall
(175 cm), with a weight of 162 lbs (74 kg). They are rugged,
easily transported and shatter-proof.
Sectional phantoms do not replace simple geometric phantoms
that are used to evaluate individual characteristics of an
imaging system. They provide comprehensive evaluation of the
imaging system and imaging techniques under realistic
conditions. Typical applications are the same as PIXY.
- Teaches positioning for craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique views.
- Teaches spot-compression procedures
- Sensitivity training for patient comfort
- Helpful in training male students (no more loaded vests to simulate breasts)
MAMMO II is a patient substitute that allows instructors to
teach mammography positioning.
MAMMO II mammograms, taken within the range of standard
technical factors, provide realistic images with high
MAMMO II simplifies classroom procedures, allowing trainees to
take as many exposures as are needed to develop expertise.
A molded gel provides realistic compressibility. Mammograms
are taken at a breast thickness of 5-cm, using normal
The breast is mounted on a post with adjustments for height
and the angles needed for various views.
A small indicator box is placed next to the breast to signal
when the 5-cm breast thickness is reached. An "ouch" is
represented by a red warning light which informs the trainee
that a patient's pain level can be reached at about this
compression. The light is actuated 5-mms before the dead stop
produced by the box. This procedure emphasizes the care needed
for patients when the pain zone is reached.
**The skull on the right is natural
Our thanks to Dr. Carolyn Kimme-Smith for her invaluable
help in developing MAMMO II.
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