The Fission-Product Phantom is partially modeled after the Lawrence Livermore Realistic Phantom. It was developed by RSD to meet the needs of nuclear power stations and other facilities where more organs are needed than are provided by the Lawrence Livermore Realistic Phantom.
This phantom may be used on a couch, in a chair or standing. It includes the head and neck, the complete torso and stub legs articulated at the hips (which are also needed for the sitting position). The same access to the torso cavity is provided as in the Livermore Phantom.
The materials of construction are RSD multi-energetic formulations. The skeleton has been extended to include the head and full torso. The RSD “Superhuman Skeleton,” which is multi-energetic, is used. RSD materials closely meet the standards of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) Report No. 44 (Tissue Substitutes in Radiation Dosimetry and Measurement, 1989).
The organs of the Lawrence Livermore Realistic Phantom fit exactly into the Fission-Product Phantom, but RSD has modified the internal construction to accommodate additional organs: thyroid, kidneys, stomach, spleen, pancreas, and small and large intestines.
The Fission-Product Phantom system is shipped with inert organs. Any or all organs can be replaced by radioactive organs, which are shipped in separate packages.
The same choices of nuclide loadings are available for active organs as for the liver of the Livermore Phantom (uniformly dispersed in the molding materials, hollow shells or with hold grids).
These are fitted specifically to the Fission-Product Phantom and are not interchangeable with the Livermore Phantom.
The Thyroid Phantom is an integral part of the Fission-Product Phantom, but it can also be suppliedseparately (with or without a head). This phantom has the same contours as in the full Fission-Product Phantom.
The Thyroid Phantom contains a neck with corresponding “Superhuman Skeleton” vertebrae, a hollow-shell thyroid with filling and flushing ports, and a front cover of tissue-equivalent phantom material.
This assembly has been designed for rapid removal of the cover plate and thyroid, a quick fill with an isotope solution and an equally rapid reassembly. This permits work with iodines of very short half-lives. A portion of the clavicles and sternum are included to further enhance the realism of the phantom.
RSD routinely manufactures active organs with isotopes to suit users’ needs. Active capsules to fit into the gridded holes are available, or empty capsules can be supplied to be filled by the user.
RSD usually supplies the required isotopes, but users may furnish them if so desired.
Isotopes are most often received as calibrated solutions, traceable to the NIST. Organ loading is controlled by micropipetting aliquots from the calibrated solutions. Uraniums and plutoniums are traceable to the NIST by mass. Other isotopes are usually traceable by activity.
Some isotopes are manufactured only at intervals throughout the year, so delivery is subject to availability. In some cases, calibration costs from governmental sources are subject to wide fluctuations.
Lawrence Livermore Realistic Phantom System includes: torso and gridded torso cover, inert heart, lungs, lymph nodes, liver and liver envelope or abdominal contents. All blocks needed for organ location and soft tissue continuity within torso. Documentation. Permanent shipping and storage case.
Fission-Product Phantom System,includes: head, neck, neck cover plate for thyroid access, complete torso and gridded torso cover, inert heart, lungs, lymph nodes, thyroid, liver, kidneys, stomach, pancreas, spleen, small and large intestines. Stub legs with pivot bolts. Documentation. Permanent shipping and storage case.
Active Capsule (isotope and activity to be specified)
Inert Capsule with sealing cap, to be filled by user
Thyroid Phantom without head; consists of neck, hollow thyroid, thyroid cover, a portion of the cervical spine, sternum and clavicles
Thyroid Phantom with head; (same as RS-542 but with head and full cervical spine)
Thyroid, solid, active
Thyroid, hollow, inert
Chest Overlay Plates
(1, 2, 3, 4)
(A, B, C)
|Chest Overlay Plate (Any of 4 thicknesses)|
#1 – thinnest, #4 – thickest
=A) 87% adipose – 13% muscle
B) 50% adipose – 50% muscle
C) 100% muscle
(A, B, C)
|Chest Overlay Plates|
Set of 4, in materials A, B, or C