Frequently Asked Questions

Diagnostic Radiology



Can animal lungs be placed in Damaged Debbie?

Debbie has a tube in her lung that would interfere with the tube.

Can animal lungs be placed in Wounded Willy?

Yes, no obstruction in Wounded Willy.

Do animal lungs x-ray more like human lungs?

Yes, the arteries are more visible.

What is the density of the tissue equivalent material in the sectional phantoms?

1.005-1.025 g/cc

What is the energy range of the tissue equivalent material in the sectional phantoms?

50-150 Kvp

Is it possible to drill holes for dosimeters in PIXY?

Yes, but it is necessary to be aware of the internal organ locations.

Which material for PIXY and the Sectionals is most often purchased: the transparent or opaque?

Those who would like to see the bones and organs prefer the transparent version.  Those who want their students to know the location of the bones and organs without being able to see them, prefer the opaque version.

What does KIP stand for?

Kohrman Injection Phantom

Can discography be performed on the KIP phantom?

Yes, you can stick the region but you can’t inject or do pressure studies.

Can catheters be inserted in the caudal space?


KIP: does it come with a carrying case?

No.  The phantom weighs 70-75 lbs.  In a crate the weight is about 165lbs.

What is the composition of the inter-vertebral discs?

Gel material the same as the injectable soft tissues.

KIP uses?

It can be used for neuro and ortho applications but not for vertebral plasty, spinal cord stimulation or pumps.

Does temperature change affect insertion of needle?

No, a petroleum jelly must still be used.

If a needle should break, what is the procedure for removal?

Removal of skin, then use pliers to remove.

Radiation Therapy



Is there calcium in the ART phantom?


What is the composition of the ART phantoms?

Tissue-equivalent material.

Nuclear Medicine



In the Heart/Thorax Phantom is there room for a homemade pouch?


What patient weight does the phantom correspond to?

5’ 10”  and 165 lbs.

Is it possible to fill the spine area with fluid?


Health Physics



Does the Thyroid phantom have filling and flushing ports.



Other (The Breathing Phantom)

Are the lungs inflated to simulate breathing?   They are inflated.
Is the skin deformed during the respiratory movements?   The materials are selected to provide radiographic and radiation dosimetric equivalence to the modeled material 
(i.e., muscle looks and responds in radiation in a manner very close to human muscle tissue, bone, etc.
Are the generated movements and/or skin movements relative to patient data?   The present product simulates generic free breathing.
Academic Publication Availability?   Memorial Sloan Kettering
University of Tokyo
Is the Varian 1.7 rmp gating compatible with The Breathing Phantom?   Yes
Does the target move in a x-y or z-y-z direction?   The target moves Sup-Inf (Cranio-Caudal) about 25-30mm with a 7˚ twist around the direction of motion.
Is needle insertion for interventional radiology possible?   No
Is it possible to insert a holder filled with gel in the lungs to perform 3D dosimetry?   Yes. The maximum size holder is 1¼ x 1 ¼ x 1¼
What is the maximum possible movement of the tumor, speeds, lung volume, etc?   The stroke is adjustable up to 25mm, using the Stroke dial in the software. The phantom motion depends on applied pressure waveform, in particular in the exhalation portion of the cycle. The system is open-loop where the applied pressure inflates the phantom and when rapidly reduced, the phantom “exhales” under the force of the elastic materials in the chestwall (virtual intercostal muscles). When the pressure in the lung volume is decreased slowly, the motion follows the (decreasing) applied pressure. The maximum applied pressure is set at the factoryfor a chestwall motion of approximately 1.5-2cm with the white rod in place. There is a simple adjustment in the pump box to customize this to your needs. The lung volume corresponds to size for a 5 feet, 9 inches (175 cm) tall, 162 lbs (73.5 kg) male. All of the RSD materials in the imagable volume of the phantom are equivalent to natural bone and soft tissues. The tumor/target speed travels the full stroke in/out (i.e. 50mm = twice the 25mm max stroke) in one breathing cycle, so that the tumor velocity also depends on respiration rate: tumor velocity (cm/sec)= Breaths per mionute *{ 50mm/[10(mm/cm)*60(sec/min)] }. So for a 12bpm rate, the tumor velocity is one cm/sec.
Is the tumor supposed to rotate as it extends?   The tumor is designed to rotate 7 degrees upon full extension (full stroke). Different pitches can be provided on special order.
What are the computer requirements?  
  • Generic computer requirements are:
    • CPU: Intel family
    • OS: Microsoft Windows 2000/XP/Vista
    • IO: one USBv1.1 or higher (connects to the RS1500 PC interface box containing the MCC_USB-1208LS.)
    • RAM: The installed software uses minimal RAM, so a system configured for the OS above is sufficient.
  • Disk: The installed software requires at most 667MB (i.e. one CD-full) of hard disk space.
    • Most of this is documentation for MCC devices.
    • One can elect not to skip install the MCC documentation.
    • The RSD RS1500 application is less than 0.5MB.
    • Upper bound: diskspace approx 130MB: RS1500 app, MCC driver(s), LabView_RTE
Evaluation of generated movements and/or skin movements relative to patient data?   The present product simulates generic free breathing. In progress is a system to train the phantom control software to reproduce patient chest motion from that recorded via commercial devices adjunct to respiratory gated imaging. Chest motion is represented as anterior displacement at a given anatomical location defined by the user and on a patient-specific basis.
Is PET-CT permissible?   Yes